Definitions
to understand what human trafficking is

Human trafficking or human smuggling?

Nathalie Khlat, co-founder of the Beacon of the Freed, explains the difference between human trafficking and human smuggling. She sheds light on the existence of human trafficking in Quebec and describes how it occurs here in its various forms. Note that this video dates from 2016.

What is human trafficking

HUMAN TRAFFICKING = HUMAN EXPLOITATION

The recruitment, transport, transfer, harboring or reception of people, by the threat of recourse or the use of force or other forms of coercion, by kidnapping, fraud, by deception, abuse of authority or situation of vulnerability, or by offering or accepting payments or benefits to obtain the consent of one person having authority over another, for the purpose of exploitation.

 

Exploitation includes, as a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or forced services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or organ harvesting.

Art. 3a) Additional Protocol to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Human Trafficking, Especially Women and Children (2000) United Nations.

Minimum an action

Recruitment

Transport

Transfer

Accommodation

Welcoming people

Minimum a way

All forms of coercion (force, kidnapping, fraud, deception, threat)

All forms of abuse of authority or situation of vulnerability

For a purpose

Sexual exploitation
Labour exploitation
Domestic servitude
Forced begging
Organ removal

Definitions of the different forms of trafficking

Sexual

exploitation 

“Sexual exploitation generally involves a situation, context or relationship where an individual takes advantage of a person's state of vulnerability or dependence, or the existence of unequal power relations, with the aim of using that person's body for sexual purposes, for the sake of benefit.” (Secretariat for the Status of Women, 2016).

Exploitation for work purposes or labor trafficking

Refers to any work or service, in the public or private sector, required of an individual under the threat of direct or indirect repercussions such as physical violence, psychological threats or non-payment of wages. Constraints can also consist of the loss of rights or privileges such as promotions, transfers or even access to a new job (OIT, 2016).

Domestic

servitude

"The exploited person is in the grip of the exploiting household, their freedoms are reduced and their living conditions are often contrary to human dignity.” (OIT, n.d.). This is akin to exploitation for the purpose of work, but has the particularity of being carried out in a home.

Forced

begging

Refers to the obligation for a person to practice begging under the coercion of an exploiter who takes advantage of it. Begging can take many forms, such as asking a foreigner for money on the pretext of being poor or for health reasons, offering artistic performances or collecting recyclable materials (European Commission, 2012; National Agency against Human Trafficking, 2009).

Mariage forcé

In a forced marriage, the union is discussed by the parents, family members or any other individual having some form of control over one of the two partners concerned. There is therefore no freedom of choice for at least one of the people concerned. Violence, manipulation and coercion can be used to induce the individual (s) to marry. Forced marriages are therefore marriages where one or both parties have not personally expressed their free and full consent to the union.

Prélèvement d'organes

Means “the act of unlawfully removing a human organ from living or deceased donors without obtaining the donor's free, informed, specific consent or without the removal being authorized under domestic law. In addition, this definition incorporates situations where the donor or a third party is offered or obtains a profit or a comparable advantage." (International Organization against Modern Slavery)